Must-know ICT and government terminology

A glossary of information and communication technology (ICT) and public sector terms to help suppliers more credibly engage with government.

Term Definition
Best and Final Offer

Best and final offer (BAFO) is a procurement term that refers to the final bid submitted by a supplier or vendor in a competitive procurement process. After the initial proposals and negotiations, the procuring agency may ask the remaining bidders to submit their best and final offer. The purpose of a BAFO is to allow the bidders to make their most competitive offer in response to the agency's requirements, taking into account the other bids and any feedback from the agency. The agency will evaluate the BAFOs and make an award decision based on the best value for money.


The measurement and analysis of unique biological characteristics or traits, such as fingerprints, facial features, iris patterns, or voiceprints, for the purpose of identification or authentication. Biometric identification systems use these characteristics to verify a person's identity, either by comparing them to a database of known biometric samples or by analyzing a live sample from the user.


Measures taken to prevent the introduction and spread of harmful biological agents, such as viruses, bacteria, pests, or invasive species, into a specific area, ecosystem, or population. Biosecurity measures aim to protect human, animal, and plant health, as well as the environment and the economy, from the negative impacts of biological threats. Biosecurity practices can include quarantine and isolation measures, hygiene and disinfection protocols, monitoring and surveillance systems, and risk assessments and contingency planning.


A group of individuals who are appointed to oversee the operations of a government entity or agency. Board members are usually appointed by the relevant Minister or the Governor-General, and they may be selected for their expertise in a particular field or for their broader management and leadership skills. Boards are generally responsible for setting the agency's priorities, approving its budget and strategic plans, and ensuring that it is accountable to the public and the government. Examples of government boards in Australia include the board of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), and the board of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS).

Border Security

Agencies responsible for securing the nation's borders and manage the movement of people and goods across them. This includes managing immigration, customs and biosecurity processes at airports, seaports, and other points of entry, as well as monitoring and enforcing compliance with immigration and customs laws.

Branch Head

A senior executive responsible for the management of a specific branch within a government agency or department. They report directly to the division head or another senior executive, and are responsible for implementing and delivering the agency's objectives and policies within their branch.


The distribution of audio or visual content, such as news, entertainment, or educational programming, to a large audience through electronic communication channels, typically radio, television, or the internet.

Budget Management

Software used by organisations or individuals to manage their finances. Allows users to create detailed budgets, track expenses, analyse spending patterns, and forecast future financial outcomes. Some budget management software may offer additional features, such as the ability to integrate with bank accounts or credit cards to automatically import transactions, generate financial reports, or set alerts for overspending or approaching budget limits. Some software may also offer advanced analytics and forecasting capabilities, allowing users to create different scenarios and see how changes in spending or income may affect their financial outlook.

Business Analysis and Process Design

The activities and techniques used to identify, analyse, and improve business processes within an organisation. Business analysis involves understanding the current state of a business process, identifying opportunities for improvement, and defining requirements for new or improved processes. Process design involves creating new processes based on the improvements identified.

Business Applications and Systems

The software tools and technologies that organisations use to manage their operations, processes, and data. These can include enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, customer relationship management (CRM) software, supply chain management (SCM) systems, and other business-specific applications.